how does a solar panel work?

A solar panel is a device that converts sunlight into electricity. It works through a process called the photovoltaic effect, which occurs when photons (light particles) from the sun strike the surface of the solar panel and cause the electrons in the panel's silicon cells to move, creating an electrical current.

The solar panel is made up of layers of different materials, including a semiconductor material (usually silicon) that has been treated with impurities to create a p-n junction. This p-n junction creates an electric field that drives the movement of the electrons.

When sunlight hits the solar panel, it causes the electrons to be knocked loose from the atoms in the silicon cells. These free electrons then move toward the surface of the panel, where they are collected by a network of conductive metal plates and wires. This movement of electrons generates an electric current that can be used to power devices or stored in batteries for later use.

Overall, a solar panel is a simple but powerful technology that harnesses the energy of the sun to create clean, renewable electricity.